How Blockchain Can Transform the Supply Chain

Supply chain has become complicated. Some would say cumbersome. It takes days to make a payment between a manufacturer and a supplier, or a customer and a vendor. Contractual agreements require the services of lawyers and bankers, each of which adds extra cost and delay. Products and parts are often hard to trace back to suppliers, making defects challenging to eliminate.

 


Regardless of the commodity involved, whether it is equipment, consumer goods, food products, or digital offerings, supply chains have headaches a-plenty.


 

Friction in the supply chain is a big problem. There are too many go-betweens. There is too much back and forth. The rise in uncertainty stops supply chains from working well. Suppliers, providers, and clients must interact via central third-party entities instead of directly with each other. Ostensibly simple transactions turn into lengthy multi-step procedures.

Blockchain could be the answer to many of these issues. This recent technology is what drives Bitcoin and other so-called cryptocurrencies. However, it goes much further than an unhackable way of holding and exchanging money. Blockchain can manage any form of exchange, agreement, or tracking process. In a supply chain, it can apply to anything from self-executing supply contracts to automated cold chain management.

 

A Blockchain Primer for Supply Chain

 

 

What is blockchain? Here’s a simple explanation. A blockchain is a distributed, digital ledger. The ledger records transactions in a series of blocks. It exists in multiple copies spread over multiple computers, typically known as nodes.

 


The ledger is secure because each new block of transactions links back to previous blocks in a way that makes tampering practically impossible. 


 

Because it is decentralised, the blockchain ledger does not depend on any single entity (like a bank) for safekeeping. The nodes connected to the blockchain network get updated versions of the ledger every time a new transaction takes place.

The multiple copies of the ledger are the “truth” about every transaction made so far in the blockchain. Any attempt at falsification would mean having to tamper with all the copies at precisely the same moment. The chances of being able to do this in blockchain networks of any useful size are negligible.

 

Bitcoin as an Example of Blockchain

 

 

The brief description of blockchain above may seem a bit abstract, so let’s look closer at the real-life example of Bitcoin. Bitcoin is just one way of using blockchain. However, it also happens to be the most well-known example. Bitcoin is a recently invented currency that is separate from any state-controlled fiscal mechanism.

Entirely digital, Bitcoin exists thanks to the distributed ledger of transactions on computers across the world. You can buy Bitcoin from Bitcoin exchanges. You can then use the Bitcoin as currency over the Internet to make and receive payments.

Each payment transaction is added to the ledger, which can be consulted by anyone at any time. Details like the amount, time, and date of each payment are visible, although the identities of participating parties are not. Bitcoin holders therefore usually do not know each other. To deal with this anonymity, Bitcoin uses another distributed mechanism called mining to add blocks of transactions to the ledger in a secure, tamperproof way.

Now, let’s compare with supply chain. The key blockchain features of Bitcoin align with the basic needs for reliability and integrity in a supply chain.

 

Consensus

All the entities in the chain agree that each transaction is valid. For Bitcoin, that means a transfer of an amount of Bitcoin. For supply chain, it could be payment, warehousing, transport or delivery.

 

Provenance

The entities in the chain know where each asset originated. They also know who owned it before and at what time. For Bitcoin, the asset is money. For supply chain, assets can be anything from iron ore and wheat to cash, machines, and copyrights.

 

Immutability

No entity can tamper with an entry in the distributed ledger. It is not possible to erase a Bitcoin transaction. Only a new Bitcoin transaction can reverse the effect of a previous one. Similarly, with blockchain, it would not be possible to falsify a supply-chain payment transaction or the records of inventory, warehousing conditions, delivery times and dates, and so on.

 

Finality

The copies of the shared ledger all hold the same version of the truth. What works for the Bitcoin network also works for any other blockchain network, supply chain included.

 

Beyond Bitcoin to Business Blockchain

 

 

Bitcoin is a useful way of getting to grips with the blockchain concept. It is also just one particular example. Blockchain for supply chain uses the same four basic principles. However, there can be significant differences in the way these principles are applied.

First, Bitcoin uses “mining” as the way to update and extend the ledger. Mining uses enormous amounts of computer power. It also involves many mining teams over the Internet, each competing to be the one to add the next block to the ledger. Blockchain for business and specifically for supply chain is not obliged to use mining. There are other options for securely updating a business blockchain.

 


Second, the applications for blockchain in supply chain are far more diverse than making or receiving payments. A large part of this diversity comes from the use of smart contracts.


 

A smart contract is a software program that uses blockchain to execute an agreement. The program is stored on the blockchain so the smart contract can only function according to its programming.  No fraud or other interference is possible.

A smart contract can take input from a ledger and trigger an event. For example, after receipt of a payment as part of a transaction, the smart contract can trigger a delivery. Conversely, if a requirement (such as timely delivery or proper storage) is not met as expected the smart contract can trigger a penalty or similar sanction.

Third-party go-betweens are not necessary for the execution of smart contracts. Manual checking of conditions and events are obsolete endeavours. A software program that runs automatically, using information that is guaranteed by the blockchain to be correct, saves both time and money.

 

Applications of Blockchain in Supply Chain

The following examples are now in use or can be implemented today using existing technology.

 

Automotive Supplier Payments

Blockchain allows the transfer of funds anywhere in the world without the need for traditional banking transactions, as transactions are made directly between payer and payee. It is also secure and rapid; taking minutes, compared to days for automated clearing house payments, for example.

Bitcoin transfers specifically also incur lower fees. Australian vehicle manufacturer Tomcar uses Bitcoin to pay some of its suppliers. Currently, three partners in Israel and Taiwan accept payment from Tomcar using Bitcoin.

 

 

Tomcar’s supplier agreements use standard terms. The advantage is in the cost savings. On the other hand, the firm is careful to avoid hanging onto too much Bitcoin. While Bitcoin is international by nature, some national governments see it as a way for companies to invest. Companies may therefore be subject to taxation on Bitcoin holdings.

 

Meat Traceability

Companies can use distributed ledger systems (blockchains) to record product status at each stage of production. The records are permanent and immutable. They make it possible to trace each product to its source. Global retailer Walmart uses blockchain to track sales of pork in China. Its system lets the company see where each piece of meat comes from, each processing and storage step in the supply chain, and the products’ sell-by date. In the event of a product recall, the company can also see which batches are affected and who bought them.

 

Electric Power Micro-grids

This example shows how entities of any size can use blockchain. In other words, blockchain is not just for the big players. Smart contracts are being used to redistribute excess power from solar panels. The Transactive Grid is an application running on blockchain to monitor and redistribute energy in a neighbourhood micro-grid. The program automates the buying and selling of green energy to save costs and pollution. The process uses the Ethereum blockchain platform, designed specifically for building and executing smart contracts.

 

RFID-driven Contract Bids and Execution

 

 

RFID tags are commonly used in supply chain to store information about products. IT systems can read the tags automatically and then process them. Therefore, the logic goes; why not use them for smart contracts in logistics?

The possible setup could be as follows. RFID tags for cartons or pallets store information on delivery location and date. Logistics partners run applications to look for these tags and bid for a delivery contract. The partner offering optimal price and service gets the business. A smart contract then tracks status and final delivery performance.

 

Cold Chain Monitoring

Food and pharmaceutical products often have specialised storage needs. Moreover, enterprises see the value in sharing warehouses and distribution centres instead of each one paying for its own. Sensors on sensitive products can record temperature, humidity, vibration, and other environmental conditions.

These readings can then be stored on a blockchain. They are permanent and tamper-proof. If a storage condition deviates from what is agreed, each member of the blockchain will see it. A smart contract can trigger a response to correct the situation. For instance, depending on the size of the deviation, the action may be to adjust the storage. However, it could also extend to changing “use-by” dates, declaring products unfit, or applying penalties.

 

Blockchain and Internet of Things

Other ambitious ideas come from using blockchain and the IoT. One suggestion is for smart contracts to manage rentals of driverless cars. A smart contract could check for rental payments. If there has been no payment or the rental agreement reaches the end of its term, the smart contract could lock the car and tell it to drive itself back to the hire company’s premises.

 

Challenges to Be Met

 

 

blockchain of course, is still an emerging technology and is, therefore, not without its share of potential issues. Enterprises that want to harness blockchain power for their supply chain will need to watch out and be ready for the following challenges.

 

Ecosystem Still in Progress

The first telephone was useless until the second one arrived. In time, the phone spread across the world, and now we cannot do without it. The situation is similar for blockchain and companies that want to do business with specific partners. Those partners will need to buy into blockchain as well.

For example, Tomcar can currently execute Bitcoin payment for about 2% of the parts it buys. However, niche uses of blockchain are on the rise. It may be just a matter of time until businesses “join the dots” for widespread acceptance.

 

Currency Volatility

Bitcoin is an easy way to start using blockchain. The problem is that the rate of exchange between Bitcoin and other currencies can change rapidly. Payment terms must be short enough or flexible enough to be able to cash in Bitcoin and recover the value expected.

Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies (Ether, for example, for the Ethereum platform) are also volatile in another sense. If you lose the digital key (passcode) to your cryptocurrency reserve, there is no way to recover it.

 

Technology and Knowhow

Blockchain programming takes a mix of software skills. It also helps to understand economies and businesses, especially your business. You may have to train staff or hire new people with these skills. You could also outsource your blockchain development to a third party. The best choice for you will depend on your current situation and future aspirations.

 

Mindset

Blockchain arose when people began searching for a way to decentralise applications and operations. They wanted to make dependencies on centralised entities like banks optional instead of obligatory. It is a new way of thinking, so don’t be surprised if it takes you or your colleagues a little time to shed your mental shackles and get into the swing of the blockchain movement.

 

Real World Supply Chain Blockchains in 2019

 

It’s always exciting to see how emerging technologies like blockchain progress and develop. Nearly a year after first publishing this article, we are seeing the supply chain and logistics domain evolving into one of the most active sectors for blockchain take-up.

For that reason, it seemed a good idea to document a few examples of how our industry is embracing distributed ledger technology and applying it to solve long-standing business problems. Let’s start with ocean freight shipping, which is an area in which blockchain innovation has been prolific over the last 12 months.

 

Tokenising the Shipping Industry with Ethereum

 

 

Hong Kong-based company 300Cubits set out in 2018 to solve an expensive and lingering problem in the container shipping industry—the preponderance of no-shows, when shippers fail to deliver cargo booked on a container vessel, and rolling, which is the outcome of shipping lines’ choice to safeguard vessel utilisation by overbooking to compensate for expected no-shows.

The 300Cubits response to the problem was to issue a TEU cryptocurrency and distribute a quantity of the tokens to shippers and shipping lines in 2018. Participants in the scheme use 300Cubits’ blockchain solution, based on Ethereum, to make deposits using the tokens when cementing a shipping transaction (the contract).

 

How Does the System Work?

 

The way it works is that the shipper and the shipping line both deposit a token in the blockchain when the shipper books cargo onto a sailing. To recover their escrowed tokens, both the shipper and the shipping line must honor the booking.

If the shipper does not present the cargo in time for loading on the vessel, the shipping line can recover its token—along with the shipper’s token—from escrow. Similarly, if the shipping line fails to transport the shipper’s cargo as agreed, the shipper receives both deposited tokens.

While 300Cubits issued the initial batch of tokens, free of charge, to participating shippers and shipping lines, it will sell subsequent batches for payment in fiat currency, ensuring that the tokens acquire monetary value. This value ensures financial consequences for shippers or shipping lines that renege on a booking. A smart contract, executed using the 300Cubit’s solution, automatically assigns tokens when a booking is made and reassigns them based on the outcome.

 

How Does Blockchain Solve the Problem?

 

The 300Cubits venture essentially makes it less likely that shippers will fail to deliver their cargoes to ports as promised, since it will cost them money to do so. At the same time, the shipping lines will lose out if every time they roll a customer’s shipment.

If successful, the scheme should reduce overbooking activity by shipping lines, ensuring that shippers do not suffer delays in the transportation of their cargoes. It should also help shipping lines utilise vessel capacity more effectively.

 

Walmart’s Blockchain Traceability Drive Continues

 

Since we first reported on Walmart’s early explorations of blockchain for traceability, which focused on the Chinese pork supply chain, the retail giant has continued investing in the technology, in partnership with IBM, and recently announced that it would require its suppliers of green vegetables to join in by September of 2019.

The move follows an outbreak of E.coli in the United States last year, the source of which turned out to be a variety of lettuce grown in Arizona. Walmart was one of the grocery chains that had to remove the lettuce from its shelves during the food safety scare, even though there was no clear indication that the product came from the affected location.

The removal of the product from Walmart’s shelves was purely a safety precaution, necessary because it would have taken as long as seven days to trace where the lettuce originated. In the future, such an issue will not occur, because with all suppliers using the IBM Food Trust blockchain, the timescale for tracing a shipment’s source will contract to a mere two seconds!

 

Key Takeaways from the Walmart Example

 

What Walmart’s confidence in the blockchain and its ability to provide traceability tells us, is that we are getting close to that pivot point at which the technology will move into the mainstream. It has to, because now the largest corporations—the ones with all the influence—are using their commercial muscle to push suppliers onto their blockchains.


With that in mind, it is probably fair to say that over the next year or two, many companies will become involved in blockchain initiatives, either voluntarily or under duress. 


 

The Walmart project also highlights the point raised earlier in this article, that a blockchain venture is not something that can be entered into unilaterally. By its very nature, a distributed ledger requires the collaboration of multiple parties, whether it is to be used for traceability or executing commercial transactions with the help of smart contracts.

Therefore, if it is something your company is considering, unless you are a Goliath in your particular industry, you will need a strategy to persuade your supply chain partners to get onboard. Walmart doesn’t have such an issue, as it is powerful enough to tell its suppliers what it wants—and to get it.

 

Conclusion

 

Blockchain can transform supply chains, industries, and ecosystems. Interestingly, even organisations like banks, that would appear to be losing out to the new technology, can see opportunities to exploit it in the streamlining of their operations.

In-depth transformation of supply chains will not happen overnight. However, supply chains can already start using blockchain in some areas of their operations. Smart contracts can help eliminate costly delays and waste generated by manual handling of paperwork. From there, new doors may open to faster, more intelligent, and more secure processes throughout the entire supply chain.

What are Greenhouse Gases and Carbon Credits

Greenhouse gases are gases in the atmosphere that absorb radiation and contribute to the greenhouse effect. Many gases exhibit greenhouse gas properties. 

The main greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere are water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ozone.  However, the Kyoto Protocol only targets the emission of six main greenhouse gases, namely:
• Carbon dioxide (CO2
• Methane (CH4)
• Nitrous oxide (N2O) 
• Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) 
• Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) 
• Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)

What are carbon emissions? 
Carbon emissions, for easy understanding, are overall measures of greenhouse gases emissions converted to the equivalent of carbon emissions based on their potential impact on global warming. Carbon emissions are caused by daily human activities such as the use of electricity, oil and gas, as well as waste production and water usage.

What is carbon footprint?
Carbon footprint, a metaphorical way of describing carbon emissions, represents the sum total of all the greenhouse gases individuals or organisations put to the atmosphere as a result of their activities. The term carbon footprint is named after carbon dioxide, the principal cause of global warming.

Carbon emissions are generated when energy is being created from fossil fuels such as oil or coal. Common activities that add to your carbon footprint include:
• Driving

• Flying • Air-conditioning • other uses of electricity

The products you buy also contribute to your carbon footprint because energy is required in the process of manufacturing and transportation.

What is carbon neutral? 
Carbon neutral is the term used to describe an activity which achieves net zero carbon emissions. This can be done by managing, reducing one’s carbon emissions, and balancing the rest through purchasing carbon offsets. As renewable energy or other environmental friendly projects can help reduce or replace the sources of carbon emission, support to carbon offset projects contributes to reduce our current carbon emissions over time.

Why need carbon offsets?
Carbon offsets help you balance out your own contribution to global warming by funding greenhouse gases reduction projects. Of course, mitigating climate change begins with conservation. Drive as fuel-efficient a car as possible. Reduce your driving by walking or cycling, or using public transportation. Cut back on plane travel. Use less air-conditioning. With carbon offsets, you can balance out 100% of those emissions you cannot eliminate through conservation.

What are UN backed carbon offsets?
A tonne of CO2 emitted anywhere in the world has the same impact on our climate. In practice, this means that we can offset emissions we cannot reduce ourselves by financing emission reductions elsewhere, which can be most efficiently done in developing countries. These emission reductions are obtained through renewable energy or energy efficiency projects. This approach is central to the Kyoto Protocol.
The two most established and accepted carbon offset credits in the world are Certified Emission Reduction (CER) and Verified Emission Reduction (VER).

How can you know carbon offsets have real and positive impact? 
All CCA carbon credits comply with strict international standards referencing the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. They are validated by the United Nations’ CDM authorities as CER; or are verified by internationally authorized certification bodies such as SGS and TUV as VER.

What is Certified Emission Reduction (CER)? 
Certified Emission Reduction (CER) is purchasable carbon credit validated by the United Nations under the Clean development Mechanism (CDM) in Kyoto Protocol, which requires its Annex 1 Countries (eg. EU, Japan, Australia) to comply with a Cap-and-Trade agreement to reduce their carbon emission and through purchasing CER to an agreed emission level. 


What is Verified Emission Reduction (VER)? 
Verified Emission Reduction (VER) is purchasable credit transferred from greenhouse gases reductions made possible by an emissions-reducing project, such as wind farm, hydro power and afforestation projects. It is verified by independent third parties based on internationally recognized standards. Organizations which are not bound by the Kyoto Protocol Cap-and-Trade agreement may offset their carbon footprints through VERs.

Carbon Neutral Study

The GPT Group is an active owner and manager of a diversified portfolio of high quality Australian retail, office and logistics property assets. Together with the Group’s Funds Management platform, assets under management total over $18 billion. Listed on the Australian Securities Exchange (ASX) since 1971, GPT is today one of the top 50 listed stocks on the ASX by market capitalisation.

The GPT Group believes that looking after the environment to meet the needs of current and future generations is essential to ongoing business success. The Group, and its employees, recognises the need to continue to reduce environmental impacts to a point where resources are sustainably used and emissions are at or below levels that can be reabsorbed without harm. GPT experiences strong employee engagement as a result of our carbon neutrality and we are better able to demonstrate to investors and the community our willingness to transition to a carbon neutral economy.

The business case for obtaining carbon neutral certification

GPT’s Climate Change and Energy Policy sets a target of zero emissions. To meet this target, we needed to explore the boundaries, measurement techniques and communication methods that would support the achievement of this important goal.

Our initial carbon neutral certification relates to the management offices where over 500 GPT staff work. Carbon neutral certification demonstrates to our employees GPT’s commitment to reducing emissions. Internal surveys show that 95 per cent of our employees think GPT should be taking deliberate action to reduce emissions. Most of them suggest that GPT should be taking urgent action, demonstrating community leadership on this issue.

The strategy also allows GPT to align with other important stakeholders. Investors are increasingly applying sustainability filters to select businesses that are effective in the management of environmental and social issues. A number of GPT’s tenants, our customers, are already certified as carbon neutral.

Achieving carbon neutrality

Carbon footprint

In GPT’s base reporting year of 2011, we had a total carbon footprint of 3,843 t CO2-e across all facilities under our operational control. The emissions boundary includes:

•    Office energy use

•    Base building energy use (prorated to tenancy size)

•    Employee commute

•    Business air travel

•    Accommodation

•    Other scope 3 emissions

Emission reductions

The application of emissions reduction activities has seen GPT reduce the emissions of the property portfolio by 57 per cent since 2005, with substantial savings flowing to the business and our customers.

Emissions have been avoided by moving to paperless offices which has seen the introduction of electronic filing systems that have reduced paper use. GPT has also facilitated better office to office communications, reducing the need for travel and installed energy efficient lighting to ensure lights are only on when required. We have increased our use of renewable energy on GPT properties and introduced innovative waste programs that are focussed on closing the materials loop, avoiding landfill and recycling materials. By working with our energy supply chain we were able to ensure that at least 30 per cent of electricity is powered by GreenPower across GPT managed assets.

Offsetting

Remaining emissions are offset through purchasing credits from projects that support renewable energy such as wind power projects.

Benefits and outcomes of carbon neutral certification

GPT has been able to demonstrate affirmative action to employees, investors and the community by reducing carbon emissions and exploring what it will take to transition to a carbon neutral economy.

Through carbon neutral accreditation, we’ve learned more about the activities that comprise our carbon footprint and how we might avoid or manage them.

Most importantly, GPT knows that the claim of carbon neutrality is supported through adherence to a standard and methodology supported by the Australian Government.

Challenges and learnings

One of the main challenges for businesses is to understand the emissions boundary and emissions factors. GPT worked with Pangolin and Associates to develop our annual carbon inventory. In addition to engaging with Pangolin, GPT has its carbon footprint audited biennially by Ernst & Young (EY). EY provides assurance over the inventory, giving the whole organisation confidence that the collected information and carbon factors used are appropriate to our business and in accordance with the Standard and the certification requirements.

By working with our internal team and our consultants, GPT is able to effectively manage our carbon neutrality under NCOS and promote our carbon neutral story to employees, investors and the community.

“As we head towards a carbon neutral economy it’s important that there are reliable, consistent and useful standards and guides. The Carbon Neutral Program Guidelines and the National Carbon Offset Standard support an important program that allows market leaders to engage with, understand, account for and claim carbon neutral status.”

 

Want to find out more about other organisations who are carbon neutral?
www.environment.gov.au/climate-change/carbon-neutral

 

development

Carbon Offsetting

An activity, process, organisation, event, building or precinct is carbon neutral when its net greenhouse gas emissions (emissions) are equal to zero. To become carbon neutral, entities must calculate their emissions, reduce these emissions as much as possible, and then purchase and cancel carbon offsets or carbon credits equivalent to the remaining emissions. This process results in emissions being offset and leads to net zero emissions or being carbon neutral.

Benefits of offsetting

Many carbon offset projects deliver a range of positive outcomes in addition to emission reductions. By purchasing offset units, organisations can support social, environmental or economic outcomes.

Environmental co-benefits include supporting the maintenance of habitat for native animal and plant species, avoiding clearing of vegetation and re-establishing vegetation on previously cleared areas.

Social co-benefits include employment for local people through managing the project, reduced social welfare, and providing health and educational improvements.

Economic co-benefits arise from the income generated from the sale of offset credits. This income is delivered to the communities in which the project is located through employment and community support.

Offset units eligible under the National Carbon Offset Standard

The National Carbon Offset Standard provides a list of eligible offset units that have been assessed as meeting the Standard’s offsets integrity principles. These principles are designed to ensure that eligible offset units represent genuine and credible emission reductions.

The list of eligible offset units is at Appendix A to the National Carbon Offset Standard.

Australia’s Carbon Marketplace

    The Department of the Environment and Energy supported the Carbon Market Institute to develop Australia’s Carbon Marketplace. Australia’s Carbon Marketplace assists businesses in navigating the voluntary carbon market, fostering connections between businesses operating in the carbon reduction space and providing valuable information to individuals and organisations wishing to learn more about offsetting and carbon neutrality. Australia’s Carbon Marketplace includes a list of offsets projects and a directory of carbon market professionals including offset brokers and traders.

    foundation

    THE MASSIVE POTENTIAL FOR SOLAR AND RENEWABLES FOR ISLAND COMMUNITIES

    Tell us something about your work promoting solar energy in the Caribbean. 

    This year we organized the Jamaica Solar Challenge, a competition in partnership with two local youth organizations: the Commonwealth Youth Council and Caribbean Youth Environment Network.

    We asked students to create a song, video, poster or something else creative that would share the benefits of solar energy with their peers. We were so happy with the results and are excited to be launching similar competitions in Grenada, Guyana and Belize next year!

    Has Solar Head of State put effort into branching out its educational opportunities towards solar power to also include the accessory technologies that can further enhance the viability of solar, i.e., things like microgrids, energy storage, etc.?

     Storage is becoming increasingly affordable and so I hope that we can find ways to incorporate it into future Solar Head of State projects. There is also a great argument for storage as part of building climate resiliency: if there is a power outage during a natural disaster we want public buildings to be able to stay in operation so they can be used to coordinate response and recovery. The main limitations to incorporating this is the additional funding needed, but governments are waking up to the importance of storage and microgrids so I expect we will be doing more of this for future projects.

    Do you feel you have gained some traction? Do Caribbean people “get it” on renewables? 

    The Caribbean is no different to other parts of the world in that most people do not think about where their electricity is being generated. The big difference is the phenomenal cost of electricity in the region – islanders pay 3-6 times more than US customers per unit of electricity consumed. This makes the need all the more pressing, and with the political turmoil in Venezuela there is an economic and environmental imperative for the region to move away from fossil fuels.

    I think people are starting to wake up and see that renewables make sense for their wallet as well as the climate and this is going to be the thing that moves the needle. It is also exciting to see the growing environmental movement in the Caribbean as people see the impacts of climate change on their communities.

    You’ve previously noted that some unique challenges in installing renewable energy projects in developing and rural communities include the knowledge and education barrier, as well as unique financing challenges. Are there any ingrained cultural issues you’ve encountered that need to be overcome beyond the technical and political ones?

    It is difficult to make any generalizations here because there is so much variation between countries. In SIDS nations many people are aware of the socio-economic benefits that renewables can have, but the big barrier is finance. Financing is just not available enough for renewable energy in SIDS and we really need to see a greater involvement of the private sector. Despite potentially high returns (consumers in many SIDS may pay between 20 and 55 US cents per kilowatt hour) there are some big policy and transaction barriers that need to be overcome, and economies of scale is always going to be an issue.

    Most SIDS countries have a high percentage of households connected to the grid, with the real issue being the cost of supply. Two notable exceptions here are Haiti and Papua New Guinea, both of which have much lower electrification rates that their neighbors. There is a growing trend towards privately-run micro-utilities in Haiti, with companies like Sigora operating private grids in rural parts of the country. This “leap-frogging” of technology was something we also saw in the communications industry where many developing countries have a high rate of mobile phone ownership and skipped the now obsolete landline era. I think that the microgrid technology being implemented in many developing countries (particularly parts of East and Southern Africa) is going to be something we can learn a lot from and could be implemented in North America as localized storage changes our relationship with electricity supplies.

    Do you see renewable projects being installed with a sense of optimism or more a fear of the future?

    In islands around the world there is a sense of pride in being the leaders in developing cutting-edge solutions to environmental issues. In Scotland, the Orkney Islands have some of the most advanced marine energy projects in the world and are pioneering underwater data centers. SIDS like Aruba and Palau are on their way to meeting ambitious targets that have been set for renewable energy. As well as the moral imperative for developing these solutions it gives a great deal of optimism in regions that have long been considered “peripheral” to the global economy. Islands have to deal with high energy costs and the first impacts of climate change and so it makes sense that they would be the ones pioneering solutions.

    I also think industrialized nations that continue to emit greenhouse gases need to put more money forward to pay for the damage being done through climate change. We have seen efforts to develop this with the Green Climate Fund, but many small nations have found this money difficult to access due to the complex bureaucracy involved.

    You recently graduated with a Masters in Island Studies at the University of the Highlands and Islands. You also publish your own online newsletter on islands. What drives your fascination with islands?

    I am from a very rural part of England and so the relationship between communities and their natural environment has always interested me. The Masters in Island Studies allowed me to explore the complexities of living in smaller, isolated communities and the differences needed in governance and business for these communities to prosper.

    Many people are confused by the idea of “Island Studies” but really it is simply an interdisciplinary approach to studying island communities incorporation geography, sociology, political science, environmental studies and more.

    I started the Island Innovation newsletter because I wanted to disseminate all of the information I was receiving about different island communities in the world and make it easily obtainable for a wider audience.

    What do you think islands have in common, globally – if anything? Or does every island have its own set of complexities?

    There are definite commonalities globally between island communities, with key issues such as energy, transportation, housing and climate change frequently being apparent.

    There are obviously cultural and climatic differences and no two islands are the same, but there is plenty to be learned from collaboration and sharing good practices. All too often I see communities trying to reinvent the wheel when neighbouring islands have already found creative solutions to an issue. This is the idea behind the newsletter, to break down barriers and share ideas.

    I am starting “Island Innovation”, an occasional e-newsletter to provide original analysis and a digest of overlooked articles on #SustainableDevelopment for #rural #remote #island areas. I would be thrilled if you join!

    Click here to sign up: https://t.co/grLvD2bGkA#susdev pic.twitter.com/ewVdRawR8u

    — James Ellsmoor ? (@jellsmoor) March 20, 2018

    You describe yourself as a “digital nomad.” What are the pros and cons of this work style? Do you see yourself settling down at a 9 to 5 job again, one day?

    I have never had a 9 to 5 job and I’m not sure if that is a good or a bad thing! I guess I am also a “digital native”, growing up with internet connectivity as the norm and not knowing anywhere else. Most of my work can be done from a laptop and so I have a lot of flexibility in where I work from! Right now things are working day by day so no immediate plans to settle down….

    What are your next events or projects?

     I’ll be in Puerto Rico at the end of this month for the Solar Power Puerto Rico conference! There are some great things happening in Puerto Rico with the new bill for solar energy, but still much to be done!

    advisory

    Carbon Neutral Coffee — World first pilot

    “Climate change is a serious problem, caused primarily by the carbon dioxide released from burning fossil fuels like oil, coal, and gas. But there are things we can do about it — like choosing to go carbon neutral.”​

    David Suzuki Foundation

    “Climate change is a serious problem, caused primarily by the carbon dioxide released from burning fossil fuels like oil, coal, and gas. But there are things we can do about it — like choosing to go carbon neutral.”​

    David Suzuki foundation


    While climate change and environmental sustainability are undoubtedly at the forefront of the minds of consumers and retailers alike, finding solutions with meaningful impact can sometimes be difficult.

    In these circumstances we rely on the leadership of individuals and organizations willing to think outside of the box and make real efforts towards change. It takes innovation and commitment to guide the ship to the proper destination — which is, climate action now.

    While climate change and environmental sustainability are undoubtedly at the forefront of the minds of consumers and retailers alike, finding solutions with meaningful impact can sometimes be difficult.

    In these circumstances we rely on the leadership of individuals and organizations willing to think outside of the box and make real efforts towards change. It takes innovation and commitment to guide the ship to the proper destination — which is, climate action now.


    A new pilot program set to kick off in August of 2019 in Halifax, Nova Scotia will offer consumers the carbon neutral products they desire, while also supporting the growth and feasibility of emission reduction projects.

    Working with “We are really excited to be pioneering this project in our spaces,” says Victoria Foulger, co-owner of PAVIA. “We work really hard to make choices that make a positive impact by doing things like trying to source locally and ethically, or by using products like fairly-traded organic sugar, coffee and cocoa. Carbon off-set seems like a logical step towards being a more responsible business and making a positive environmental impact.”

    Here is how:

    STEP ONE — buy your coffee

    STEP TWO — you’re done!


    Oversimplified as it may seem, an important goal of this program is to give retailers a tool that can not only integrate seamlessly within their operations, but is also a friction free process for the consumer taking part.

    Carbon Asset NA Inc., has designed a technology called the Carbon Asset Platform (CAP) which serves as a digital registry for carbon offsets. These certified offsets can be applied against any product in increments as small as grams, opening up an entirely new green market with this clean technology.

    Through this platform the carbon offsets, which were traditionally traded in terms of tonnes in a brokerage manner, can now be fractionalized into smaller volumes and tracked according to the carbon footprint of a specific retail product directly from the point of sale.

    Each product entered into the CAP has a carbon footprint calculated, and each sale of that product has a corresponding transaction of carbon offsets being retired — neutralizing the impact of that product from the bean on the bush, to the coffee in your cup.

    Oversimplified as it may seem, an important goal of this program is to give retailers a tool that can not only integrate seamlessly within their operations, but is also a friction free process for the consumer taking part.

    Carbon Asset NA Inc., has designed a technology called the Carbon Asset Platform (CAP) which serves as a digital registry for carbon offsets. These certified offsets can be applied against any product in increments as small as grams, opening up an entirely new green market with this clean technology.

    Through this platform the carbon offsets, which were traditionally traded in terms of tonnes in a brokerage manner, can now be fractionalized into smaller volumes and tracked according to the carbon footprint of a specific retail product directly from the point of sale.

    Each product entered into the CAP has a carbon footprint calculated, and each sale of that product has a corresponding transaction of carbon offsets being retired — neutralizing the impact of that product from the bean on the bush, to the coffee in your cup.


    Over time retailers and consumers alike can view the progress of this program, through the interactive ledger which runs on a renewable energy powered data network, built by Every gram of a product’s carbon footprint being offset contributes to supporting the purchase of more carbon offsets from projects like: greenhouse gas capture, solar power generation, wind farms, and more.

    As these developers of carbon offsets gain a fair market for their green outputs, they gain the stability and security to operate and grow into the future. In this way daily consumer actions tie directly to the impact that is being pursued.

    In the case of this Pavia coffee pilot program, the offsets being applied are from a local renewable energy facility which is capturing and destroying harmful greenhouse gases which would normally be entering the atmosphere.

    In a full life cycle of impact, through this pilot, the cup of coffee you drink is quite literally helping you breathe cleaner air in your community. With these localized types of relationships, the Carbon Asset team aims to develop many successful partnerships and stories that deliver the rare type of impact we strive for in the pursuit of positive climate action.


    To learn more about the Carbon Asset Platform, you can visit:

    www.carbonasset.eco

    Pavia Gallery’s location at the Halifax Central Library

    To learn more about the Carbon Asset Platform, you can visit:


    About Pavia Gallery:

    With two locations within the Halifax Central Library (1st floor & 5th floor), another at the Art Gallery of Nova Scotia and the original in beautiful Herring Cove, PAVIA Gallery — Espresso Bar & Cafe (est. 2011) is a local, independent business that strives to create exceptional experiences for their guests.

    About Pavia Gallery:

    With two locations within the Halifax Central Library (1st floor & 5th floor), another at the Art Gallery of Nova Scotia and the original in beautiful Herring Cove, PAVIA Gallery — Espresso Bar & Cafe (est. 2011) is a local, independent business that strives to create exceptional experiences for their guests.


    About Carbon Asset NA Inc.:

    Supporting projects that reduce greenhouse gas and creating a new markets for carbon offsets, Carbon Asset NA Inc. provides an all-inclusive service that gives businesses the ability to offer consumers a carbon neutral product.

    https://www.carbonasset.eco

    About Carbon Asset NA Inc.:

    Supporting projects that reduce greenhouse gas and creating a new markets for carbon offsets, Carbon Asset NA Inc. provides an all-inclusive service that gives businesses the ability to offer consumers a carbon neutral product.

    https://www.carbonasset.eco

    Facebook has sold us your personal data

    Facebook has sold us your personal data, them have told us that you have cryptocurrency Are you an enthusiast, you have wondered what they know even more about you or what Google, YouTube, Twitter, etc know about you, Facebook has up to 800 pages with personal data per user, there was only one an alternative, a messages and social media platform that makes an end to this exploitation by you the full control over data that you prepare you’re sharing, and you’re rewarded now is there such a platform and it is called “howdoo” · decentralized democratic revolutionary “Howdoo” lets you connect with friends and family, pay and share value about it network earn from the advertising that you are willing to receive or the data that you are willing to share, using blockchain, “howdoo” is social media built based on trust and openness and amount, it’s about creating change that people increasingly requirements of the internet for information to the internet of value put right what is wrong with established centralized platforms and inspiring a more important human interactions, this is “how do” and we are ready to start taking back control by joining us today, together we can change the world

    Influencer

    Howdoo Will Have Close Cooperation With IBM and Huawei Mobile at a Launch

    Howdoo will have close cooperation with IBM by utilising IBM Watson Personality Insights, IBM Cloud and AI Chat Assistant. As a launch partner, IBM joined HP Gaming, huawei, Mitel, and an array of leading influencers that will be using Howdoo at a launch in early 2020.


    Blockchain based social media platform Howdoo has raised attention recently by announcing Michael Chen (CMO Fantom) as an advisor followed by the launch of the app on Huawei AppGalery. Howdoo has closed public fundraising round back in June 2018 with a total of $8.5M USD raised.

    earn

    The Idiot’s Guide to Blockchain

    blockchain

    Blockchain technology is part of the answer. It allows data to be stored on a ledger which cannot be manipulated ensuring that voting is credible. It is believed to have been developed by a person or group of developers calling themselves Satoshi Nakamoto. It can disrupt the current online advertising landscape in a couple of ways.

    The technology is growing and we’ll witness AI’s prominent part in various industries. Blockchain technology may also assist with transparency. It does not function that way at all. Although there are several technologies that are altering the accounting industry like Artificial Intelligence and Blockchain, the most obvious technology, which ought to be welcomed by every accountant is cloud.

    The Debate Over Blockchain

    In the last decade, technology has played an extremely crucial part in transforming the accounting business and so accountants should be quite open-minded in adopting the newest technology. The technology is not going to only change traditional media, it is forecast to change social media too. Something named Blockchain technology could be the reply. The blockchain technology was known as the most innovative and advanced technology on earth now. BitCoinONE Blockchain Technology One of the most fascinating characteristics of the BitCoinONE blockchain technology is the fact that it is wholly decentralized, rather than being stored in a central point.

    Details of Bitcoin Price Live

    The Argument About Bitcoin Price Live

    As you have a look at the prices since they are trending up or down, it is helpful to have a very long time frame such as 4 hours or one day for each bar as a way to receive a grasp of the big picture. The Bid Price is the current top price at which someone in the current market is prepared to get a stock. In some unfortunate instances, the price may shoot up 20% promptly, but then drop all of the way back. You are able to utilize to spot where the upcoming price could possibly be headed. Prices have been shooting up over the past couple of months because of the enormous purchasing interest from new speculators who don’t understand the character of the instruments. The amount of bitcoin at the period of press is 13,674.

    For starters, you should know something about the current market, thus a quick course on Forex and currencies exchange would be exceedingly beneficial to you. Some take the industry seriously and use a system or strategy, even though a large number of others picture the market for a casino. Obviously a lot has changed since then, especially whenever you have a look at the forex marketplace. It’s a fact that should you trade the market in the more compact time frame then you’ll get a lot of trading signals but the quality will be exceedingly poor. For that reason, it’s foreseeable to view how the market fluctuated as the filling was rejected and will review again. The Bitcoin market can’t do that.

    When you’re trading in the marketplace, you might think that it would be useful if there was an indicator. The futures trading market involves lots of groups and aren’t confined to certain commodities only. Bitcoin trading has become the most significant part the Bitcoin system. Trading with price action is truly not too hard.